### Vizing-like conjecture for the upper domination of Cartesian products of graphs -- the proof.

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A dominating set D for a graph G is a subset of V(G) such that any vertex in V(G)-D has a neighbor in D, and a domination number γ(G) is the size of a minimum dominating set for G. For the Cartesian product G ⃞ H Vizing's conjecture [10] states that γ(G ⃞ H) ≥ γ(G)γ(H) for every pair of graphs G,H. In this paper we introduce a new concept which extends the ordinary domination of graphs, and prove that the conjecture holds when γ(G) = γ(H) = 3.

We consider classes of graphs that enjoy the following properties: they are closed for gated subgraphs, gated amalgamation and Cartesian products, and for any gated subgraph the inverse of the gate function maps vertices to gated subsets. We prove that any graph of such a class contains a peripheral subgraph which is a Cartesian product of two graphs: a gated subgraph of the graph and a prime graph minus a vertex. Therefore, these graphs admit a peripheral elimination procedure which is a generalization...

The strong product G₁ ⊠ G₂ of graphs G₁ and G₂ is the graph with V(G₁)×V(G₂) as the vertex set, and two distinct vertices (x₁,x₂) and (y₁,y₂) are adjacent whenever for each i ∈ 1,2 either ${x}_{i}={y}_{i}$ or ${x}_{i}{y}_{i}\in E\left({G}_{i}\right)$. In this note we show that for two connected graphs G₁ and G₂ the edge-connectivity λ (G₁ ⊠ G₂) equals minδ(G₁ ⊠ G₂), λ(G₁)(|V(G₂)| + 2|E(G₂)|), λ(G₂)(|V(G₁)| + 2|E(G₁)|). In addition, we fully describe the structure of possible minimum edge cut sets in strong products of graphs.

A graph is called a partial cube if it admits an isometric embedding into a hypercube. Subdivisions of wheels are considered with respect to such embeddings and with respect to the convexity of their intervals. This allows us to answer in negative a question of Chepoi and Tardif from 1994 whether all bipartite graphs with convex intervals are partial cubes. On a positive side we prove that a graph which is bipartite, has convex intervals, and is not a partial cube, always contains a subdivision...

Tree-like isometric subgraphs of hypercubes, or tree-like partial cubes as we shall call them, are a generalization of median graphs. Just as median graphs they capture numerous properties of trees, but may contain larger classes of graphs that may be easier to recognize than the class of median graphs. We investigate the structure of tree-like partial cubes, characterize them, and provide examples of similarities with trees and median graphs. For instance, we show that the cube graph of a tree-like...

The periphery graph of a median graph is the intersection graph of its peripheral subgraphs. We show that every graph without a universal vertex can be realized as the periphery graph of a median graph. We characterize those median graphs whose periphery graph is the join of two graphs and show that they are precisely Cartesian products of median graphs. Path-like median graphs are introduced as the graphs whose periphery graph has independence number 2, and it is proved that there are path-like...

Median graphs are characterized among direct products of graphs on at least three vertices. Beside some trivial cases, it is shown that one component of G×P₃ is median if and only if G is a tree in that the distance between any two vertices of degree at least 3 is even. In addition, some partial results considering median graphs of the form G×K₂ are proved, and it is shown that the only nonbipartite quasi-median direct product is K₃×K₃.

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