### Nonexistence of triples of nonisomorphic connected graphs with isomorphic connected ${P}_{3}$-graphs.

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A vertex-colored graph is rainbow vertex-connected if any two vertices are connected by a path whose internal vertices have distinct colors. The rainbow vertex-connection of a connected graph G, denoted by rvc(G), is the smallest number of colors that are needed in order to make G rainbow vertexconnected. It was proved that if G is a graph of order n with minimum degree δ, then rvc(G) < 11n/δ. In this paper, we show that rvc(G) ≤ 3n/(δ+1)+5 for [xxx] and n ≥ 290, while rvc(G) ≤ 4n/(δ + 1) + 5...

Given a graph G = (V,E) and a (not necessarily proper) edge-coloring of G, we consider the complexity of finding a spanning tree of G with as many different colors as possible, and of finding one with as few different colors as possible. We show that the first problem is equivalent to finding a common independent set of maximum cardinality in two matroids, implying that there is a polynomial algorithm. We use the minimum dominating set problem to show that the second problem is NP-hard.

The concept of a line digraph is generalized to that of a directed path graph. The directed path graph Pₖ(D) of a digraph D is obtained by representing the directed paths on k vertices of D by vertices. Two vertices are joined by an arc whenever the corresponding directed paths in D form a directed path on k+1 vertices or form a directed cycle on k vertices in D. In this introductory paper several properties of P₃(D) are studied, in particular with respect to isomorphism and traversability. In our...

The generalized k-connectivity κk(G) of a graph G, introduced by Hager in 1985, is a nice generalization of the classical connectivity. Recently, as a natural counterpart, we proposed the concept of generalized k-edge-connectivity λk(G). In this paper, graphs of order n such that [...] for even k are characterized.

An edge-colored graph G is rainbow connected, if any two vertices are connected by a path whose edges have distinct colors. The rainbow connection number of a connected graph G, denoted rc(G), is the smallest number of colors that are needed in order to make G rainbow connected. In this paper we show that rc(G) ≤ 3 if |E(G)| ≥ [...] + 2, and rc(G) ≤ 4 if |E(G)| ≥ [...] + 3. These bounds are sharp.

A weighted graph is a graph in which each edge e is assigned a non-negative number w(e), called the weight of e. The weight of a cycle is the sum of the weights of its edges. The weighted degree ${d}^{w}\left(v\right)$ of a vertex v is the sum of the weights of the edges incident with v. In this paper, we prove the following result: Suppose G is a 2-connected weighted graph which satisfies the following conditions: 1. The weighted degree sum of any three independent vertices is at least m; 2. w(xz) = w(yz) for every...

A path in an edge-colored graph G is rainbow if no two edges of the path are colored the same. The rainbow connection number rc(G) of G is the smallest integer k for which there exists a k-edge-coloring of G such that every pair of distinct vertices of G is connected by a rainbow path. Let f(d) denote the minimum number such that rc(G) ≤ f(d) for each bridgeless graph G with diameter d. In this paper, we shall show that 7 ≤ f(3) ≤ 9.

The Wiener index W(G) of a connected graph G, introduced by Wiener in 1947, is defined as W(G) = ∑u,v∈V(G) d(u, v) where dG(u, v) is the distance between vertices u and v of G. The Steiner distance in a graph, introduced by Chartrand et al. in 1989, is a natural generalization of the concept of classical graph distance. For a connected graph G of order at least 2 and S ⊆ V (G), the Steiner distance d(S) of the vertices of S is the minimum size of a connected subgraph whose vertex set is S. We now...

The Wiener index W(G) of a connected graph G, introduced by Wiener in 1947, is defined as W(G) =∑u,v∈V (G) dG(u, v), where dG(u, v) is the distance (the length a shortest path) between the vertices u and v in G. For S ⊆ V (G), the Steiner distance d(S) of the vertices of S, introduced by Chartrand et al. in 1989, is the minimum size of a connected subgraph of G whose vertex set contains S. The k-th Steiner Wiener index SWk(G) of G is defined as [...] SWk(G)=∑S⊆V(G)|S|=kd(S) $S{W}_{k}\left(G\right)={\sum}_{\underset{\left|S\right|=k}{S\subseteq V\left(G\right)}}d\left(S\right)$ . We investigate the...

A path in a vertex-colored graph is called vertex-rainbow if its internal vertices have pairwise distinct colors. A vertex-colored graph G is rainbow vertex-connected if for any two distinct vertices of G, there is a vertex-rainbow path connecting them. For a connected graph G, the rainbow vertex-connection number of G, denoted by rvc(G), is defined as the minimum number of colors that are required to make G rainbow vertex-connected. In this paper, we find all the families ℱ of connected graphs...

Let G = (V (G),E(G)) be a nontrivial connected graph of order n with an edge-coloring c : E(G) → {1, 2, . . . , q}, q ∈ N, where adjacent edges may be colored the same. A tree T in G is a rainbow tree if no two edges of T receive the same color. For a vertex set S ⊆ V (G), a tree connecting S in G is called an S-tree. The minimum number of colors that are needed in an edge-coloring of G such that there is a rainbow S-tree for each k-subset S of V (G) is called the k-rainbow index of G, denoted by...

Let G be a nontrivial connected graph with an edge-coloring c : E(G) → {1, 2, . . . , q}, q ∈ ℕ, where adjacent edges may be colored the same. A tree T in G is called a rainbow tree if no two edges of T receive the same color. For a vertex set S ⊆ V (G), a tree that connects S in G is called an S-tree. The minimum number of colors that are needed in an edge-coloring of G such that there is a rainbow S-tree for every set S of k vertices of V (G) is called the k-rainbow index of G, denoted by rxk(G)....

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