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### Unique factorization theorem

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

A property of graphs is any class of graphs closed under isomorphism. A property of graphs is induced-hereditary and additive if it is closed under taking induced subgraphs and disjoint unions of graphs, respectively. Let ₁,₂, ...,ₙ be properties of graphs. A graph G is (₁,₂,...,ₙ)-partitionable (G has property ₁ º₂ º... ºₙ) if the vertex set V(G) of G can be partitioned into n sets V₁,V₂,..., Vₙ such that the subgraph $G\left[{V}_{i}\right]$ of G induced by Vi belongs to ${}_{i}$; i = 1,2,...,n. A property is said to be reducible...

### On the structure of the point arboricity critical graphs

Mathematica Slovaca

### Fractional Q-Edge-Coloring of Graphs

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

An additive hereditary property of graphs is a class of simple graphs which is closed under unions, subgraphs and isomorphism. Let [...] be an additive hereditary property of graphs. A [...] -edge-coloring of a simple graph is an edge coloring in which the edges colored with the same color induce a subgraph of property [...] . In this paper we present some results on fractional [...] -edge-colorings. We determine the fractional [...] -edge chromatic number for matroidal properties of graphs.

### Gallai's innequality for critical graphs of reducible hereditary properties

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

In this paper Gallai’s inequality on the number of edges in critical graphs is generalized for reducible additive induced-hereditary properties of graphs in the following way. Let $₁,₂,...,ₖ$ (k ≥ 2) be additive induced-hereditary properties, $=₁\circ ₂\circ ...\circ ₖ$ and $\delta ={\sum }_{i=1}^{k}\delta {\left(}_{i}\right)$. Suppose that G is an -critical graph with n vertices and m edges. Then 2m ≥ δn + (δ-2)/(δ²+2δ-2)*n + (2δ)/(δ²+2δ-2) unless = ² or $G={K}_{\delta +1}$. The generalization of Gallai’s inequality for -choice critical graphs is also presented.

### On uniquely partitionable relational structures and object systems

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

We introduce object systems as a common generalization of graphs, hypergraphs, digraphs and relational structures. Let C be a concrete category, a simple object system over C is an ordered pair S = (V,E), where E = A₁,A₂,...,Aₘ is a finite set of the objects of C, such that the ground-set $V\left({A}_{i}\right)$ of each object ${A}_{i}\in E$ is a finite set with at least two elements and $V\supseteq {\bigcup }_{i=1}^{m}V\left({A}_{i}\right)$. To generalize the results on graph colourings to simple object systems we define, analogously as for graphs, that an additive induced-hereditary...

### On infinite uniquely partitionable graphs and graph properties of finite character

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

A graph property is any nonempty isomorphism-closed class of simple (finite or infinite) graphs. A graph property is of finite character if a graph G has a property if and only if every finite induced subgraph of G has a property . Let ₁,₂,...,ₙ be graph properties of finite character, a graph G is said to be (uniquely) (₁, ₂, ...,ₙ)-partitionable if there is an (exactly one) partition V₁, V₂, ..., Vₙ of V(G) such that $G\left[{V}_{i}\right]{\in }_{i}$ for i = 1,2,...,n. Let us denote by ℜ = ₁ ∘ ₂ ∘ ... ∘ ₙ the class of all (₁,₂,...,ₙ)-partitionable...

### Unique factorization theorem for object-systems

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

The concept of an object-system is a common generalization of simple graph, digraph and hypergraph. In the theory of generalised colourings of graphs, the Unique Factorization Theorem (UFT) for additive induced-hereditary properties of graphs provides an analogy of the well-known Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetics. The purpose of this paper is to present UFT for object-systems. This result generalises known UFT for additive induced-hereditary and hereditary properties of graphs and digraphs. Formal...

### Fractional (P,Q)-Total List Colorings of Graphs

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

Let r, s ∈ N, r ≥ s, and P and Q be two additive and hereditary graph properties. A (P,Q)-total (r, s)-coloring of a graph G = (V,E) is a coloring of the vertices and edges of G by s-element subsets of Zr such that for each color i, 0 ≤ i ≤ r − 1, the vertices colored by subsets containing i induce a subgraph of G with property P, the edges colored by subsets containing i induce a subgraph of G with property Q, and color sets of incident vertices and edges are disjoint. The fractional (P,Q)-total...

### Universality in Graph Properties with Degree Restrictions

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

Rado constructed a (simple) denumerable graph R with the positive integers as vertex set with the following edges: For given m and n with m < n, m is adjacent to n if n has a 1 in the m’th position of its binary expansion. It is well known that R is a universal graph in the set [...] of all countable graphs (since every graph in [...] is isomorphic to an induced subgraph of R). A brief overview of known universality results for some induced-hereditary subsets of [...] is provided. We then construct...

### Graphs maximal with respect to hom-properties

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

For a simple graph H, →H denotes the class of all graphs that admit homomorphisms to H (such classes of graphs are called hom-properties). We investigate hom-properties from the point of view of the lattice of hereditary properties. In particular, we are interested in characterization of maximal graphs belonging to →H. We also provide a description of graphs maximal with respect to reducible hom-properties and determine the maximum number of edges of graphs belonging to →H.

### On generalized list colourings of graphs

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

Vizing  and Erdős et al.  independently introduce the idea of considering list-colouring and k-choosability. In the both papers the choosability version of Brooks' theorem  was proved but the choosability version of Gallai's theorem  was proved independently by Thomassen  and by Kostochka et al. . In  some extensions of these two basic theorems to (𝓟,k)-choosability have been proved. In this paper we prove some extensions of the well-known bounds for...

### The order of uniquely partitionable graphs

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

Let ₁,...,ₙ be properties of graphs. A (₁,...,ₙ)-partition of a graph G is a partition V₁,...,Vₙ of V(G) such that, for each i = 1,...,n, the subgraph of G induced by ${V}_{i}$ has property ${}_{i}$. If a graph G has a unique (₁,...,ₙ)-partition we say it is uniquely (₁,...,ₙ)-partitionable. We establish best lower bounds for the order of uniquely (₁,...,ₙ)-partitionable graphs, for various choices of ₁,...,ₙ.

### Prime ideals in the lattice of additive induced-hereditary graph properties

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

An additive induced-hereditary property of graphs is any class of finite simple graphs which is closed under isomorphisms, disjoint unions and induced subgraphs. The set of all additive induced-hereditary properties of graphs, partially ordered by set inclusion, forms a completely distributive lattice. We introduce the notion of the join-decomposability number of a property and then we prove that the prime ideals of the lattice of all additive induced-hereditary properties are divided into two groups,...

### Criteria for of the existence of uniquely partitionable graphs with respect to additive induced-hereditary properties

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

Let ₁,₂,...,ₙ be graph properties, a graph G is said to be uniquely (₁,₂, ...,ₙ)-partitionable if there is exactly one (unordered) partition V₁,V₂,...,Vₙ of V(G) such that $G\left[{V}_{i}\right]{\in }_{i}$ for i = 1,2,...,n. We prove that for additive and induced-hereditary properties uniquely (₁,₂,...,ₙ)-partitionable graphs exist if and only if ${}_{i}$ and ${}_{j}$ are either coprime or equal irreducible properties of graphs for every i ≠ j, i,j ∈ 1,2,...,n.

### Generalized circular colouring of graphs

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

Let P be a graph property and r,s ∈ N, r ≥ s. A strong circular (P,r,s)-colouring of a graph G is an assignment f:V(G) → {0,1,...,r-1}, such that the edges uv ∈ E(G) satisfying |f(u)-f(v)| < s or |f(u)-f(v)| > r - s, induce a subgraph of G with the propery P. In this paper we present some basic results on strong circular (P,r,s)-colourings. We introduce the strong circular P-chromatic number of a graph and we determine the strong circular P-chromatic number of complete graphs for additive...

### On universal graphs for hom-properties

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

A graph property is any isomorphism closed class of simple graphs. For a simple finite graph H, let → H denote the class of all simple countable graphs that admit homomorphisms to H, such classes of graphs are called hom-properties. Given a graph property 𝓟, a graph G ∈ 𝓟 is universal in 𝓟 if each member of 𝓟 is isomorphic to an induced subgraph of G. In particular, we consider universal graphs in → H and we give a new proof of the existence of a universal graph in → H, for any finite graph...

### Generalized Fractional and Circular Total Colorings of Graphs

Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory

Let P and Q be additive and hereditary graph properties, r, s ∈ N, r ≥ s, and [ℤr]s be the set of all s-element subsets of ℤr. An (r, s)-fractional (P,Q)-total coloring of G is an assignment h : V (G) ∪ E(G) → [ℤr]s such that for each i ∈ ℤr the following holds: the vertices of G whose color sets contain color i induce a subgraph of G with property P, edges with color sets containing color i induce a subgraph of G with property Q, and the color sets of incident vertices and edges are disjoint. If...

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