### Preconditioning strategies for 2D finite difference matrix sequences.

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We provide and discuss an elementary proof of the exponential con- ditioning of real Vandermonde matrices which can be easily given in undergraduate courses: we exclusively use the definition of conditioning and the sup-norm formula on $[-1,1]$ for Chebyshev polynomials of first kind. The same proof idea works virtually unchanged for the famous Hilbert matrix.

When dealing with large linear systems with a prescribed structure, two key ingredients are important for designing fast solvers: the first is the computational analysis of the structure which is usually inherited from an underlying infinite dimensional problem, the second is the spectral analysis which is often deeply related to a compact symbol, again depending on the infinite dimensional problem of which the linear system is a given approximation. When considering the computational view-point,...

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