### Application of the Drazin inverse to the analysis of descriptor fractional discrete–time linear systems with regular pencils

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The problem of finding a gain matrix of the state-feedback of 2D linear system such that the closed-loop system is positive and asymptotically stable is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of the problem are established. It is shown that the problem can be reduced to suitable linear programming problem. The proposed approach can be extended to 2D linear system described by the 2D Roesser model.

Methods for finding solutions of the state equations of descriptor fractional discrete-time and continuous-time linear systems with regular pencils are proposed. The derivation of the solution formulas is based on the application of the Z transform, the Laplace transform and the convolution theorems. Procedures for computation of the transition matrices are proposed. The efficiency of the proposed methods is demonstrated on simple numerical examples.

It is shown that the asymptotic stability of positive 2D linear systems with delays is independent of the number and values of the delays and it depends only on the sum of the system matrices, and that the checking of the asymptotic stability of positive 2D linear systems with delays can be reduced to testing that of the corresponding positive 1D systems without delays. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is demonstrated on numerical examples.

The notions of externally and internally positive time-varying linear systems are introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the external and internal positivities of time-varying linear systems are established. Moreover, sufficient conditions for the reachability of internally positive time-varying linear systems are presented.

Fractional positive asymptotically stable continuous-time linear systems are approximated by fractional positive asymptotically stable discrete-time systems using a linear Padé-type approximation. It is shown that the approximation preserves the positivity and asymptotic stability of the systems. An optional system approximation is also discussed.

Pointwise completeness and pointwise degeneracy of positive fractional descriptor continuous-time linear systems with regular pencils are addressed. Conditions for pointwise completeness and pointwise degeneracy of the systems are established and illustrated by an example.

The classical Cayley-Hamilton theorem is extended to continuous-time linear systems with delays. The matrices of the system with delays satisfy algebraic matrix equations with coefficients of the characteristic polynomial.

A new class of singular fractional linear systems and electrical circuits is introduced. Using the Caputo definition of the fractional derivative, the Weierstrass regular pencil decomposition and the Laplace transformation, the solution to the state equation of singular fractional linear systems is derived. It is shown that every electrical circuit is a singular fractional system if it contains at least one mesh consisting of branches only with an ideal supercapacitor and voltage sources or at least...

The Drazin inverse of matrices is applied to find the solutions of the state equations of descriptor fractional discrete-time systems with regular pencils. An equality defining the set of admissible initial conditions for given inputs is derived. The proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example.

The positivity and linearization of a class of nonlinear continuous-time system by nonlinear state feedbacks are addressed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of the class of nonlinear systems are established. A method for linearization of nonlinear systems by nonlinear state feedbacks is presented. It is shown that by a suitable choice of the state feedback it is possible to obtain an asymptotically stable and controllable linear system, and if the closed-loop system is positive...

The notion of a common canonical form for a sequence of square matrices is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a similarity transformation reducing the sequence of matrices to the common canonical form are established. It is shown that (i) using a suitable state vector linear transformation it is possible to decompose a linear 2D system into two linear 2D subsystems such that the dynamics of the second subsystem are independent of those of the first one, (ii) the...

A new class of fractional linear continuous-time linear systems described by state equations is introduced. The solution to the state equations is derived using the Laplace transform. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established for the internal and external positivity of fractional systems. Sufficient conditions are given for the reachability of fractional positive systems.

A new class of cone fractional continuous-time linear systems is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a fractional linear system to be a cone fractional one are established. Sufficient conditions for the reachability of cone fractional systems are given. The discussion is illustrated with an example of linear cone fractional systems.

The appropriate choice of the forms of Lyapunov functions for a positive 2D Roesser model is addressed. It is shown that for the positive 2D Roesser model: (i) a linear form of the state vector can be chosen as a Lyapunov function, (ii) there exists a strictly positive diagonal matrix P such that the matrix A^{T}PA-P is negative definite. The theoretical deliberations will be illustrated by numerical examples.

Conditions for the existence of positive stable realizations with system Metzler matrices for fractional continuous-time linear systems are established. A procedure based on the Gilbert method for computation of positive stable realizations of proper transfer matrices is proposed. It is shown that linear minimum-phase systems with real negative poles and zeros always have positive stable realizations.

The realization problem for a class of positive, continuous-time linear SISO systems with one delay is formulated and solved. Sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of a given proper transfer function are established. A procedure for the computation of positive minimal realizations is presented and illustrated by an example.

The classical Cayley-Hamilton theorem is extended to nonlinear time-varying systems with square and rectangular system matrices. It is shown that in both cases system matrices satisfy many equations with coefficients being the coefficients of characteristic polynomials of suitable square matrices. The proposed theorems are illustrated with numerical examples.

The problem of the existence and determination of the set of Metzler matrices for given stable polynomials is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established for the existence of the set of Metzler matrices for given stable polynomials. A procedure for finding the set of Metzler matrices for given stable polynomials is proposed and illustrated with numerical examples.

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