### Unbounded stability of two-term recurrence sequences modulo ${2}^{k}$

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Let d be a fixed positive integer. A Lucas d-pseudoprime is a Lucas pseudoprime N for which there exists a Lucas sequence U(P,Q) such that the rank of appearance of N in U(P,Q) is exactly (N-ε(N))/d, where the signature ε(N) = (D/N) is given by the Jacobi symbol with respect to the discriminant D of U. A Lucas d-pseudoprime N is a primitive Lucas d-pseudoprime if (N-ε(N))/d is the maximal rank of N among Lucas sequences U(P,Q) that exhibit N as a Lucas pseudoprime. We derive...

We examine iteration graphs of the squaring function on the rings $\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}$ when $n={2}^{k}p$, for $p$ a Fermat prime. We describe several invariants associated to these graphs and use them to prove that the graphs are not symmetric when $k=3$ and when $k\ge 5$ and are symmetric when $k=4$.

Let $d$ be a fixed positive integer. A Lucas $d$-pseudoprime is a Lucas pseudoprime $N$ for which there exists a Lucas sequence $U(P,Q)$ such that the rank of $N$ in $U(P,Q)$ is exactly $(N-\epsilon (N\left)\right)/d$, where $\epsilon $ is the signature of $U(P,Q)$. We prove here that all but a finite number of Lucas $d$-pseudoprimes are square free. We also prove that all but a finite number of Lucas $d$-pseudoprimes are Carmichael-Lucas numbers.

The authors examine the frequency distribution of second-order recurrence sequences that are not $p$-regular, for an odd prime $p$, and apply their results to compute bounds for the frequencies of $p$-singular elements of $p$-regular second-order recurrences modulo powers of the prime $p$. The authors’ results have application to the $p$-stability of second-order recurrence sequences.

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