Host Factors in Viral Life Cycles

G. Pérez-Vilaró; J. Jungfleisch; V. Saludes; N. Scheller; M. Giménez-Barcons; J. Díez

Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena (2012)

  • Volume: 7, Issue: 5, page 123-132
  • ISSN: 0973-5348

Abstract

top
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on the host cell for expansion. With the development of global analyses techniques like transcriptomics, proteomics and siRNA library screening of complete cellular gene sets, a large range of host cell factors have been discovered that either support or restrict virus growth. Here we summarize some of the recent findings and focus our discussion on the hepatitis C virus and the human immunodeficiency virus, two major pathogens that threat global health. The identification of cellular proteins affecting multiple viruses points to the existence of central regulation nodes that might be exploited for both, a quantitative description of host-virus interactions within single infected cells and the development of novel, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.

How to cite

top

Pérez-Vilaró, G., et al. "Host Factors in Viral Life Cycles." Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena 7.5 (2012): 123-132. <http://eudml.org/doc/222422>.

@article{Pérez2012,
abstract = {Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on the host cell for expansion. With the development of global analyses techniques like transcriptomics, proteomics and siRNA library screening of complete cellular gene sets, a large range of host cell factors have been discovered that either support or restrict virus growth. Here we summarize some of the recent findings and focus our discussion on the hepatitis C virus and the human immunodeficiency virus, two major pathogens that threat global health. The identification of cellular proteins affecting multiple viruses points to the existence of central regulation nodes that might be exploited for both, a quantitative description of host-virus interactions within single infected cells and the development of novel, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. },
author = {Pérez-Vilaró, G., Jungfleisch, J., Saludes, V., Scheller, N., Giménez-Barcons, M., Díez, J.},
journal = {Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena},
keywords = {host factors as central regulation nodes for quantitative models of viral expansion; identification of host-virus interactions; hepatitis C virus; human immunodeficiency virus; host factors as central regulation nodes for quantitative models of viral expansion},
language = {eng},
month = {10},
number = {5},
pages = {123-132},
publisher = {EDP Sciences},
title = {Host Factors in Viral Life Cycles},
url = {http://eudml.org/doc/222422},
volume = {7},
year = {2012},
}

TY - JOUR
AU - Pérez-Vilaró, G.
AU - Jungfleisch, J.
AU - Saludes, V.
AU - Scheller, N.
AU - Giménez-Barcons, M.
AU - Díez, J.
TI - Host Factors in Viral Life Cycles
JO - Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena
DA - 2012/10//
PB - EDP Sciences
VL - 7
IS - 5
SP - 123
EP - 132
AB - Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on the host cell for expansion. With the development of global analyses techniques like transcriptomics, proteomics and siRNA library screening of complete cellular gene sets, a large range of host cell factors have been discovered that either support or restrict virus growth. Here we summarize some of the recent findings and focus our discussion on the hepatitis C virus and the human immunodeficiency virus, two major pathogens that threat global health. The identification of cellular proteins affecting multiple viruses points to the existence of central regulation nodes that might be exploited for both, a quantitative description of host-virus interactions within single infected cells and the development of novel, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.
LA - eng
KW - host factors as central regulation nodes for quantitative models of viral expansion; identification of host-virus interactions; hepatitis C virus; human immunodeficiency virus; host factors as central regulation nodes for quantitative models of viral expansion
UR - http://eudml.org/doc/222422
ER -

References

top
  1. P. Ahlquist. Parallels among positive-strand RNA viruses, reverse-transcribing viruses and double-stranded RNA viruses. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 4 (2006), No. 5, 371–382.  
  2. L. Ajamian, L. Abrahamyan, M. Milev, P.V. Ivanov, A.E. Kulozik, N.H. Gehring, A.J. Mouland. Unexpected roles for UPF1 in HIV-1 RNA metabolism and translation. RNA, 14 (2008), No. 5, 914–927.  
  3. I. Alves-Rodrigues, A. Mas, J. Díez. Xenopus Xp54 and Human RCK/p54 Helicases Functionally Replace Yeast Dhh1p in Brome Mosaic Virus RNA Replication. J.Virol., 81 (2007), No. 8, 4378–4380.  
  4. P.C. Angeletti, K. Kim, F.J. Fernandes, P.F. Lambert. Stable Replication of Papillomavirus Genomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Virol., 76 (2002), No. 7, 3350–3358.  
  5. Y. Ariumi, M. Kuroki, K. Abe, H. Dansako, M. Ikeda, T. Wakita, N. Kato. DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicase is required for hepatitis C virus RNA replication. J. Virol., 81 (2007), No. 24, 13922–13926.  
  6. Y. Ariumi, M. Kuroki, Y. Kushima, K. Osugi, M. Hijikata, M. Maki, M. Ikeda, N. Kato. Hepatitis C virus hijacks P-body and stress granule components around lipid droplets. J. Virol., 85 (2011), No. 14, 6882–6892.  
  7. S. Bandyopadhyay, R.C. Friedman, R.T. Marquez, K. Keck, B. Kong, M.S. Icardi, K.E. Brown, C.B. Burge, W.N. Schmidt, Y. Wang, A.P. McCaffrey. Hepatitis C virus infection and hepatic stellate cell activation downregulate miR-29 : miR-29 overexpression reduces hepatitis C viral abundance in culture. J. Infect. Dis., 203 (2011), No. 12, 1753–1762.  
  8. A.L. Brass, D.M. Dykxhoorn, Y. Benita, N. Yan, A. Engelman, R.J. Xavier, J. Lieberman, S.J. Elledge. Identification of host proteins required for HIV infection through a functional genomic screen. Science, 319 (2008), No. 5865, 921–926.  
  9. F.D. Bushman, N. Malani, J. Fernandes, I. D’Orso, G. Cagney, T.L. Diamond, H. Zhou, D.J. Hazuda, A.S. Espeseth, R. Konig, S. Bandyopadhyay, T. Ideker, S.P. Goff, N.J. Krogan, A.D. Frankel, J.A. Young, S.K. Chanda. Host cell factors in HIV replication : meta-analysis of genome-wide studies. PLoS Pathog., 5 (2009), No. 5, e1000437.  
  10. J. Coller, R. Parker. Eukaryotic mRNA decapping. Annu. Rev. Biochem., 73 (2004), No. 1, 861–890.  
  11. Y.L. Chiu, T.M. Rana. RNAi in human cells : basic structural and functional features of small interfering RNA. Mol. Cell, 10 (2002), No. 3, 549–561.  
  12. H. Dahari, R.M. Ribeiro, C.M. Rice, A.S. Perelson. Mathematical modeling of subgenomic hepatitis C virus replication in Huh-7 cells. J. Virol., 81 (2007), No. 2, 750–760.  
  13. K.U. Dee, M.L. Shuler. A mathematical model of the trafficking of acid-dependent enveloped viruses : application to the binding, uptake, and nuclear accumulation of baculovirus. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 54 (1997), No. 5, 468–490.  
  14. J. Diez, M. Ishikawa, M. Kaido, P. Ahlquist. Identification and characterization of a host protein required for efficient template selection in viral RNA replication. Proc. Natl .Acad. Sci. U.S.A, 97 (2000), No. 8, 3913.  
  15. J.D. Dougherty, J.P. White, R.E. Lloyd. Poliovirus-mediated disruption of cytoplasmic processing bodies. J. Virol., 85 (2011), No. 1, 64–75.  
  16. C.J. Echeverri, P.A. Beachy, B. Baum, M. Boutros, F. Buchholz, S.K. Chanda, J. Downward, J. Ellenberg, A.G. Fraser, N. Hacohen, W.C. Hahn, A.L. Jackson, A. Kiger, P.S. Linsley, L. Lum, Y. Ma, B. Mathey-Prevot, D.E. Root, D.M. Sabatini, J. Taipale, N. Perrimon, R. Bernards. Minimizing the risk of reporting false positives in large-scale RNAi screens. Nat. Methods, 3 (2006), No. 10, 777–779.  
  17. M.M. Emara, M.A. Brinton. Interaction of TIA-1/TIAR with West Nile and dengue virus products in infected cells interferes with stress granule formation and processing body assembly. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104 (2007), No. 21, 9041–9046.  
  18. M.M. Emara, H. Liu, W.G. Davis, M.A. Brinton. Mutation of mapped TIA-1/TIAR binding sites in the 3’ terminal stem-loop of West Nile virus minus-strand RNA in an infectious clone negatively affects genomic RNA amplification. J. Virol., 82 (2008), No. 21, 10657–10670.  
  19. S.L. Erickson, J. Lykke-Andersen. Cytoplasmic mRNP granules at a glance. J. Cell Sci., 124 (2011), No. Pt 3, 293-297.  
  20. A. Fire, S. Xu, M.K. Montgomery, S.A. Kostas, S.E. Driver, C.C. Mello. Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature, 391 (1998), No. 6669, 806–811.  
  21. V. Fontanes, S. Raychaudhuri, A. Dasgupta. A cell-permeable peptide inhibits hepatitis C virus replication by sequestering IRES transacting factors. Virology, 394 (2009), No. 1, 82–90.  
  22. M.T. Franze de Fernandez, L. Eoyang, J.T. August. Factor fraction required for the synthesis of bacteriophage Qbeta-RNA. Nature, 219 (1968), No. 154, 588.  
  23. B.L. Gancarz, L. Hao, Q. He, M.A. Newton, P. Ahlquist. Systematic Identification of Novel, Essential Host Genes Affecting Bromovirus RNA Replication. PLoS ONE, 6 (2011), No. 8, e23988.  
  24. D.M. Gelperin, M.A. White, M.L. Wilkinson, Y. Kon, L.A. Kung, K.J. Wise, N. Lopez-Hoyo, L. Jiang, S. Piccirillo, H. Yu, M. Gerstein, M.E. Dumont, E.M. Phizicky, M. Snyder, E.J. Grayhack. Biochemical and genetic analysis of the yeast proteome with a movable ORF collection. Genes Dev ., 19 (2005), No. 23, 2816–2826.  
  25. S. Ghaemmaghami, W.-K. Huh, K. Bower, R.W. Howson, A. Belle, N. Dephoure, E.K. O’Shea, J.S. Weissman. Global analysis of protein expression in yeast. Nature, 425 (2003), No. 6959, 737–741.  
  26. M. Giménez-Barcons, J. Díez. Yeast processing bodies and stress granules : self-assembly ribonucleoprotein particles. Microb. Cell Fact., 10 (2011), No. 73.  
  27. J.I. Henke, D. Goergen, J. Zheng, Y. Song, C.G. Schuttler, C. Fehr, C. Junemann, M. Niepmann. microRNA-122 stimulates translation of hepatitis C virus RNA. EMBO J., 27 (2008), No. 24, 3300–3310.  
  28. S.C. Hensel, J.B. Rawlings, J. Yin. Stochastic kinetic modeling of vesicular stomatitis virus intracellular growth. Bull. Math. Biol., 71 (2009), No. 7, 1671–1692.  Zbl1173.92010
  29. W. Hou, Q. Tian, J. Zheng, H.L. Bonkovsky. MicroRNA-196 represses Bach1 protein and hepatitis C virus gene expression in human hepatoma cells expressing hepatitis C viral proteins. Hepatology, 51 (2010), No. 5, 1494–1504.  
  30. J. Huang, F. Wang, E. Argyris, K. Chen, Z. Liang, H. Tian, W. Huang, K. Squires, G. Verlinghieri, H. Zhang. Cellular microRNAs contribute to HIV-1 latency in resting primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. Nat. Med., 13 (2007), No. 10, 1241–1247.  
  31. W.-K. Huh, J.V. Falvo, L.C. Gerke, A.S. Carroll, R.W. Howson, J.S. Weissman, E.K. O’Shea. Global analysis of protein localization in budding yeast. Nature, 425 (2003), No. 6959, 686–691.  
  32. M. Ishaq, J. Hu, X. Wu, Q. Fu, Y. Yang, Q. Liu, D. Guo. Knockdown of cellular RNA helicase DDX3 by short hairpin RNAs suppresses HIV-1 viral replication without inducing apoptosis. Mol. Biotechnol., 39 (2008), No. 3, 231–238.  
  33. H. Ishida, T. Tatsumi, A. Hosui, T. Nawa, T. Kodama, S. Shimizu, H. Hikita, N. Hiramatsu, T. Kanto, N. Hayashi, T. Takehara. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells : involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. Biochem Biophys. Res. Commun., 412 (2011), No. 1, 92–97.  
  34. I.M. Jacobson, J.G. McHutchison, G. Dusheiko, A.M. Di Bisceglie, K.R. Reddy, N.H. Bzowej, P. Marcellin, A.J. Muir, P. Ferenci, R. Flisiak, J. George, M. Rizzetto, D. Shouval, R. Sola, R.A. Terg, E.M. Yoshida, N. Adda, L. Bengtsson, A.J. Sankoh, T.L. Kieffer, S. George, R.S. Kauffman, S. Zeuzem. Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med., 364 (2011), No. 25, 2405–2416.  
  35. M. Janda, P. Ahlquist. RNA-dependent replication, transcription, and persistence of brome mosaic virus RNA replicons in S. cerevisiae. Cell, 72 (1993), No. 6, 961–970.  
  36. R.K. Jangra, M. Yi, S.M. Lemon. DDX6 (Rck/p54) is required for efficient hepatitis C virus replication but not for internal ribosome entry site-directed translation. J. Virol., 84 (2010), No. 13, 6810–6824.  
  37. Y. Jiang, E. Serviene, J. Gal, T. Panavas, P.D. Nagy. Identification of Essential Host Factors Affecting Tombusvirus RNA Replication Based on the Yeast Tet Promoters Hughes Collection. J. Virol., 80 (2006), No. 15, 7394–7404.  
  38. C.L. Jopling, M. Yi, A.M. Lancaster, S.M. Lemon, P. Sarnow. Modulation of hepatitis C virus RNA abundance by a liver-specific MicroRNA. Science, 309 (2005), No. 5740, 1577–1581.  
  39. A. Khong, E. Jan. Modulation of stress granules and P bodies during dicistrovirus infection. J. Virol., 85 (2011), No. 4, 1439–1451.  
  40. R. Konig, Y. Zhou, D. Elleder, T.L. Diamond, G.M. Bonamy, J.T. Irelan, C.Y. Chiang, B.P. Tu, P.D. De Jesus, C.E. Lilley, S. Seidel, A.M. Opaluch, J.S. Caldwell, M.D. Weitzman, K.L. Kuhen, S. Bandyopadhyay, T. Ideker, A.P. Orth, L.J. Miraglia, F.D. Bushman, J.A. Young, S.K. Chanda. Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early-stage HIV-1 replication. Cell, 135 (2008), No. 1, 49–60.  
  41. M. Korf, D. Jarczak, C. Beger, M.P. Manns, M. Kruger. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus translation and subgenomic replication by siRNAs directed against highly conserved HCV sequence and cellular HCV cofactors. J. Hepatol., 43 (2005), No. 2, 225–234.  
  42. D.B. Kushner, B.D. Lindenbach, V.Z. Grdzelishvili, A.O. Noueiry, S.M. Paul, P. Ahlquist. Systematic, genome-wide identification of host genes affecting replication of a positive-strand RNA virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 100 (2003), No. 26, 15764–15769.  
  43. R.C. Lee, R.L. Feinbaum, V. Ambros. The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14. Cell, 75 (1993), No. 5, 843–854.  
  44. Q. Li, A.L. Brass, A. Ng, Z. Hu, R.J. Xavier, T.J. Liang, S.J. Elledge. A genome-wide genetic screen for host factors required for hepatitis C virus propagation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 106 (2009), No. 38, 16410–16415.  
  45. W. Li, Y. Li, N. Kedersha, P. Anderson, M. Emara, K.M. Swiderek, G.T. Moreno, M.A. Brinton. Cell Proteins TIA-1 and TIAR Interact with the 3’ Stem-Loop of the West Nile Virus Complementary Minus-Strand RNA and Facilitate Virus Replication. J. Virol., 76 (2002), No. 23, 11989–12000.  
  46. K.I. Lim, T. Lang, V. Lam, J. Yin. Model-based design of growth-attenuated viruses. PLoS Comput. Biol., 2 (2006), No. 9, e116.  
  47. X. Liu, T. Wang, T. Wakita, W. Yang. Systematic identification of microRNA and messenger RNA profiles in hepatitis C virus-infected human hepatoma cells. Virology, 398 (2010), No. 1, 57–67.  
  48. M. Maeda, H. Sawa, M. Tobiume, K. Tokunaga, H. Hasegawa, T. Ichinohe, T. Sata, M. Moriyama, W.W. Hall, T. Kurata, H. Takahashi. Tristetraprolin inhibits HIV-1 production by binding to genomic RNA. Microbes Infect., 8 (2006), No. 11, 2647–2656.  
  49. G. Maga, F. Falchi, M. Radi, L. Botta, G. Casaluce, M. Bernardini, H. Irannejad, F. Manetti, A. Garbelli, A. Samuele, S. Zanoli, J.A. Este, E. Gonzalez, E. Zucca, S. Paolucci, F. Baldanti, J. De Rijck, Z. Debyser, M. Botta. Toward the discovery of novel anti-HIV drugs. Second-generation inhibitors of the cellular ATPase DDX3 with improved anti-HIV activity : synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis, cytotoxicity studies, and target validation. ChemMedChem., 6 (2011), No. 8, 1371–1389.  
  50. K.L. Martin, M. Johnson, R.T. D’Aquila. APOBEC3G complexes decrease human immunodeficiency virus type 1 production. J. Virol., 85 (2011), No. 18, 9314–9326.  
  51. A. Mas, I. ALves-Rodrigues, A. Noueiry, P. Ahlquist, J. Díez. Host deadenylation-dependent mRNA decapping factors are required for a key step in brome mosaic virus RNA replication. J.Virol., 80 (2006), No. 1, 246.  
  52. S. Mnaimneh, A.P. Davierwala, J. Haynes, J. Moffat, W.-T. Peng, W. Zhang, X. Yang, J. Pootoolal, G. Chua, A. Lopez, M. Trochesset, D. Morse, N.J. Krogan, S.L. Hiley, Z. Li, Q. Morris, J. Grigull, N. Mitsakakis, C.J. Roberts, J.F. Greenblatt, C. Boone, C.A. Kaiser, B.J. Andrews, T.R. Hughes. Exploration of Essential Gene Functions via Titratable Promoter Alleles. Cell, 118 (2004), No. 1, 31–44.  
  53. J. Nakabayashi. A compartmentalization model of hepatitis C virus replication : an appropriate distribution of HCV RNA for the effective replication. J. Theor. Biol., 300 (2012), No. 110-117.  
  54. R. Nathans, C.Y. Chu, A.K. Serquina, C.C. Lu, H. Cao, T.M. Rana. Cellular microRNA and P bodies modulate host-HIV-1 interactions. Mol. Cell, 34 (2009), No. 6, 696–709.  
  55. A.O. Noueiry, J. Chen, P. Ahlquist. A mutant allele of essential, general translation initiation factor DED1 selectively inhibits translation of a viral mRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 97 (2000), No. 24, 12985–12990.  
  56. A.O. Noueiry, J. Díez, S.P. Falk, J. Chen, P. Ahlquist. Yeast Lsm1p-7p/Pat1p Deadenylation-Dependent mRNA-Decapping Factors Are Required for Brome Mosaic Virus Genomic RNA Translation. Mol. Cell. Biol., 23 (2003), No. 12, 4094–4106.  
  57. T. Panavas, P.D. Nagy. Yeast as a model host to study replication and recombination of defective interfering RNA of Tomato bushy stunt virus. Virology, 314 (2003), No. 1, 315–325.  
  58. T. Panavas, E. Serviene, J. Brasher, P.D. Nagy. Yeast genome-wide screen reveals dissimilar sets of host genes affecting replication of RNA viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102 (2005), No. 20, 7326–7331.  
  59. V. Pantaleo, L. Rubino, M. Russo. Replication of Carnation Italian Ringspot Virus Defective Interfering RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Virol., 77 (2003), No. 3, 2116–2123.  
  60. A.B. Parsons, R. Geyer, T.R. Hughes, C. Boone. Yeast genomics and proteomics in drug discovery and target validation. Prog. Cell Cycle Res., 5 (2003), No. 159-166.  
  61. X. Peng, Y. Li, K.A. Walters, E.R. Rosenzweig, S.L. Lederer, L.D. Aicher, S. Proll, M.G. Katze. Computational identification of hepatitis C virus associated microRNA-mRNA regulatory modules in human livers. BMC Genomics, 10 (2009), No. 373.  
  62. G. Pérez-Vilaró, N. Scheller, V. Saludes, J. Díez. HCV infection alters P-body composition but is independent of P-body granules. J. Virol., 86 (2012), No. 16, 8740–8749.  
  63. R. Persson, M. Hodges, B.D. King, A. Chen, K. Zeh, A.A. Levine. Pharmacokinetics of Miravirsen, a miR-122 inhibitor, predict the prolonged viral load reduction in treatment naive genotype 1 HCV infected patients. J. Hepatol., 56 (2012), Suppl. 2, S477.  
  64. F. Poordad, J. McCone, Jr., B.R. Bacon, S. Bruno, M.P. Manns, M.S. Sulkowski, I.M. Jacobson, K.R. Reddy, Z.D. Goodman, N. Boparai, M.J. DiNubile, V. Sniukiene, C.A. Brass, J.K. Albrecht, J.P. Bronowicki. Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. N. Engl. J. Med., 364 (2011), No. 13, 1195–1206.  
  65. B.D. Price, L.D. Eckerle, L.A. Ball, K.L. Johnson. Nodamura virus RNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : heterologous gene expression allows replication-dependent colony formation. J. Virol., 79 (2005), No. 1, 495–502.  
  66. B.D. Price, R.R. Rueckert, P. Ahlouist. Complete replication of an animal virus and maintenance of expression vectors derived from it in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 93 (1996), No. 18, 9465–9470.  
  67. V. Raghavan, P.S. Malik, N.R. Choudhury, S.K. Mukherjee. The DNA-A Component of a Plant Geminivirus (Indian Mung Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus) Replicates in Budding Yeast Cells. J. Virol., 78 (2004), No. 5, 2405–2413.  
  68. G. Randall, M. Panis, J.D. Cooper, T.L. Tellinghuisen, K.E. Sukhodolets, S. Pfeffer, M. Landthaler, P. Landgraf, S. Kan, B.D. Lindenbach, M. Chien, D.B. Weir, J.J. Russo, J. Ju, M.J. Brownstein, R. Sheridan, C. Sander, M. Zavolan, T. Tuschl, C.M. Rice. Cellular cofactors affecting hepatitis C virus infection and replication. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104 (2007), No. 31, 12884–12889.  
  69. B. Reddy, J. Yin. Quantitative intracellular kinetics of HIV type 1. AIDS Res Hum. Retroviruses, 15 (1999), No. 3, 273–283.  
  70. A. Rivas-Aravena, P. Ramdohr, M. Vallejos, F. Valiente-Echeverria, V. Dormoy-Raclet, F. Rodriguez, K. Pino, C. Holzmann, J.P. Huidobro-Toro, I.E. Gallouzi, M. Lopez-Lastra. The Elav-like protein HuR exerts translational control of viral internal ribosome entry sites. Virology, 392 (2009), No. 2, 178–185.  
  71. N. Scheller, L.B. Mina, R.P. Galao, A. Chari, M. Giménez-Barcons, A. Noueiry, U. Fischer, A. Meyerhans, J. Díez. Translation and replication of hepatitis C virus genomic RNA depends on ancient cellular proteins that control mRNA fates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 106 (2009), No. 32, 13517–13522.  
  72. P. Sean, J.H. Nguyen, B.L. Semler. Altered interactions between stem-loop IV within the 5’ noncoding region of coxsackievirus RNA and poly(rC) binding protein 2 : effects on IRES-mediated translation and viral infectivity. Virology, 389 (2009), No. 1-2, 45–58.  
  73. K.E. Sherman, S.L. Flamm, N.H. Afdhal, D.R. Nelson, M.S. Sulkowski, G.T. Everson, M.W. Fried, M. Adler, H.W. Reesink, M. Martin, A.J. Sankoh, N. Adda, R.S. Kauffman, S. George, C.I. Wright, F. Poordad. Response-guided telaprevir combination treatment for hepatitis C virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med., 365 (2011), No. 11, 1014–1024.  
  74. Y. Sidorenko, U. Reichl. Structured model of influenza virus replication in MDCK cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 88 (2004), No. 1, 1–14.  
  75. M. Sioud. Promises and challenges in developing RNAi as a research tool and therapy. Methods Mol. Biol., 703 (2011), No. 173-187.  
  76. A. Spear, N. Sharma, J.B. Flanegan. Protein-RNA tethering : the role of poly(C) binding protein 2 in poliovirus RNA replication. Virology, 374 (2008), No. 2, 280–291.  
  77. G. Sun, H. Li, X. Wu, M. Covarrubias, L. Scherer, K. Meinking, B. Luk, P. Chomchan, J. Alluin, A.F. Gombart, J.J. Rossi. Interplay between HIV-1 infection and host microRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res., 40 (2012), No. 5, 2181–2196.  
  78. A.W. Tai, Y. Benita, L.F. Peng, S.S. Kim, N. Sakamoto, R.J. Xavier, R.T. Chung. A functional genomic screen identifies cellular cofactors of hepatitis C virus replication. Cell Host Microbe, 5 (2009), No. 3, 298–307.  
  79. G. Tiscornia, O. Singer, M. Ikawa, I.M. Verma. A general method for gene knockdown in mice by using lentiviral vectors expressing small interfering RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 100 (2003), No. 4, 1844–1848.  
  80. R. Triboulet, B. Mari, Y.L. Lin, C. Chable-Bessia, Y. Bennasser, K. Lebrigand, B. Cardinaud, T. Maurin, P. Barbry, V. Baillat, J. Reynes, P. Corbeau, K.T. Jeang, M. Benkirane. Suppression of microRNA-silencing pathway by HIV-1 during virus replication. Science, 315 (2007), No. 5818, 1579–1582.  
  81. A.M. Ward, K. Bidet, A. Yinglin, S.G. Ler, K. Hogue, W. Blackstock, J. Gunaratne, M.A. Garcia-Blanco. Quantitative mass spectrometry of DENV-2 RNA-interacting proteins reveals that the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX6 binds the DB1 and DB2 3’ UTR structures. RNA Biol., 8 (2011), No. 6, 1173–1186.  
  82. J.P. White, R.E. Lloyd. Regulation of stress granules in virus systems. Trends Microbiol., 20 (2012), No. 4, 175–183.  
  83. E.A. Winzeler, D.D. Shoemaker, A. Astromoff, H. Liang, K. Anderson, B. Andre, R. Bangham, R. Benito, J.D. Boeke, H. Bussey, A.M. Chu, C. Connelly, K. Davis, F. Dietrich, S.W. Dow, M. El Bakkoury, F. Foury, S.H. Friend, E. Gentalen, G. Giaever, J.H. Hegemann, T. Jones, M. Laub, H. Liao, N. Liebundguth, D.J. Lockhart, A. Lucau-Danila, M. Lussier, N. M’Rabet, P. Menard, M. Mittmann, C. Pai, C. Rebischung, J.L. Revuelta, L. Riles, C.J. Roberts, P. Ross-MacDonald, B. Scherens, M. Snyder, S. Sookhai-Mahadeo, R.K. Storms, S. V?ronneau, M. Voet, G. Volckaert, T.R. Ward, R. Wysocki, G.S. Yen, K. Yu, K. Zimmermann, P. Philippsen, M. Johnston, R.W. Davis. Functional Characterization of the S. cerevisiae Genome by Gene Deletion and Parallel Analysis. Science, 285 (1999), No. 5429, 901–906.  
  84. H. Xia, Q. Mao, H.L. Paulson, B.L. Davidson. siRNA-mediated gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. Nat. Biotechnol., 20 (2002), No. 10, 1006–1010.  
  85. M.L. Yeung, L. Houzet, V.S. Yedavalli, K.T. Jeang. A genome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of jurkat T-cells for human proteins contributing to productive HIV-1 replication. J. Biol. Chem., 284 (2009), No. 29, 19463–19473.  
  86. Z. Yi, C. Fang, T. Pan, J. Wang, P. Yang, Z. Yuan. Subproteomic study of hepatitis C virus replicon reveals Ras-GTPase-activating protein binding protein 1 as potential HCV RC component. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 350 (2006), No. 1, 174–178.  
  87. S.F. Yu, P. Lujan, D.L. Jackson, M. Emerman, M.L. Linial. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX6 is required for efficient encapsidation of a retroviral genome. PLoS Pathog., 7 (2011), No. 10, e1002303.  
  88. K.-N. Zhao, I.H. Frazer. Replication of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 (BPV-1) DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following Infection with BPV-1 Virions. J. Virol., 76 (2002), No. 7, 3359–3364.  
  89. H. Zhou, M. Xu, Q. Huang, A.T. Gates, X.D. Zhang, J.C. Castle, E. Stec, M. Ferrer, B. Strulovici, D.J. Hazuda, A.S. Espeseth. Genome-scale RNAi screen for host factors required for HIV replication. Cell Host Microbe, 4 (2008), No. 5, 495–504.  

NotesEmbed ?

top

You must be logged in to post comments.

To embed these notes on your page include the following JavaScript code on your page where you want the notes to appear.

Only the controls for the widget will be shown in your chosen language. Notes will be shown in their authored language.

Tells the widget how many notes to show per page. You can cycle through additional notes using the next and previous controls.

    
                

Note: Best practice suggests putting the JavaScript code just before the closing </body> tag.