# On the formal first cocycle equation for iteration groups of type II

ESAIM: Proceedings (2012)

• Volume: 36, page 32-47
• ISSN: 1270-900X

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## Abstract

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Let x be an indeterminate over ℂ. We investigate solutions $\begin{array}{c}\hfill \alpha \left(s,x\right)=\sum _{n\ge 0}{\alpha }_{n}\left(s\right){x}^{n},\end{array}$αn : ℂ → ℂ, n ≥ 0, of the first cocycle equation $\begin{array}{c}\hfill \alpha \left(s+t,x\right)=\alpha \left(s,x\right)\alpha \left(t,F\left(s,x\right)\right),\phantom{\rule{2.0em}{0ex}}s,t\in ,\phantom{\rule{142.26378pt}{0ex}}\left(\mathrm{Co}1\right)\end{array}$in ℂ [[x]], the ring of formal power series over ℂ, where (F(s,x))s ∈ ℂ is an iteration group of type II, i.e. it is a solution of the translation equation $\begin{array}{c}\hfill F\left(s+t,x\right)=F\left(s,F\left(t,x\right)\right),\phantom{\rule{2.0em}{0ex}}s,t\in ,\phantom{\rule{142.26378pt}{0ex}}\left(\mathrm{T}\right)\end{array}$of the form F(s,x) ≡ x + ck(s)xk mod xk+1, where k ≥ 2 and ck ≠ 0 is necessarily an additive function. It is easy to prove that the coefficient functions αn(s) of $\begin{array}{c}\hfill \alpha \left(s,x\right)=1+\sum _{n\ge 1}{\alpha }_{n}\left(s\right){x}^{n}\end{array}$are polynomials in ck(s).It is possible to replace this additive function ck by an indeterminate. Finally, we obtain a formal version of the first cocycle equation in the ring (ℂ [y]) [[x]] . We solve this equation in a completely algebraic way, by deriving formal differential equations or an Aczél–Jabotinsky type equation. This way it is possible to get the structure of the coefficients in great detail which are now polynomials. We prove the universal character of these polynomials depending on certain parameters, the coefficients of the generator K of a formal cocycle for iteration groups of type II. Rewriting the solutions Γ(y,x) of the formal first cocycle equation in the form  ∑n ≥ 1ψn(x)yn as elements of (ℂ [[x]]) [[y]], we obtain explicit formulas for ψn in terms of the derivatives H(j)(x) and K(j)(x) of the generators H and K and also a representation of Γ(y,x) similar to a Lie–Gröbner series. There are interesting similarities between the solutions G(y,x) of the formal translation equation for iteration groups of type II and the solutions Γ(y,x) of the formal first cocycle equation for iteration groups of type II.

## How to cite

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Fripertinger, Harald, and Reich, Ludwig. Fournier-Prunaret, D., Gardini, L., and Reich, L., eds. "On the formal first cocycle equation for iteration groups of type II." ESAIM: Proceedings 36 (2012): 32-47. <http://eudml.org/doc/251289>.

@article{Fripertinger2012,
abstract = {Let x be an indeterminate over ℂ. We investigate solutions \begin\{eqnarray\} \advance \displaywidth by -6pc \alpha(s,x)=\sum\_\{n\geq 0\} \alpha\_n(s)x^n,\nonumber \end\{eqnarray\}αn : ℂ → ℂ, n ≥ 0, of the first cocycle equation \begin\{eqnarray\} \advance \displaywidth by -6pc \alpha (s+t,x)= \alpha (s,x)\alpha \bigl(t,F (s,x)\bigr),\qquad s,t\in\Complex, \hspace*\{5cm\}\{\rm(Co1)\}\nonumber \end\{eqnarray\}in ℂ [[x]], the ring of formal power series over ℂ, where (F(s,x))s ∈ ℂ is an iteration group of type II, i.e. it is a solution of the translation equation \begin\{eqnarray\} \advance \displaywidth by -6pc F(s+t,x)=F(s,F(t,x)),\qquad s,t\in\Complex, \hspace*\{5cm\}\rm(T)\nonumber \end\{eqnarray\}of the form F(s,x) ≡ x + ck(s)xk mod xk+1, where k ≥ 2 and ck ≠ 0 is necessarily an additive function. It is easy to prove that the coefficient functions αn(s) of \begin\{eqnarray\} \advance \displaywidth by -6pc \alpha(s,x)=1+\sum\_\{n\geq 1\}\alpha\_n(s)x^n\nonumber \end\{eqnarray\}are polynomials in ck(s).It is possible to replace this additive function ck by an indeterminate. Finally, we obtain a formal version of the first cocycle equation in the ring (ℂ [y]) [[x]] . We solve this equation in a completely algebraic way, by deriving formal differential equations or an Aczél–Jabotinsky type equation. This way it is possible to get the structure of the coefficients in great detail which are now polynomials. We prove the universal character of these polynomials depending on certain parameters, the coefficients of the generator K of a formal cocycle for iteration groups of type II. Rewriting the solutions Γ(y,x) of the formal first cocycle equation in the form  ∑n ≥ 1ψn(x)yn as elements of (ℂ [[x]]) [[y]], we obtain explicit formulas for ψn in terms of the derivatives H(j)(x) and K(j)(x) of the generators H and K and also a representation of Γ(y,x) similar to a Lie–Gröbner series. There are interesting similarities between the solutions G(y,x) of the formal translation equation for iteration groups of type II and the solutions Γ(y,x) of the formal first cocycle equation for iteration groups of type II.},
author = {Fripertinger, Harald, Reich, Ludwig},
editor = {Fournier-Prunaret, D., Gardini, L., Reich, L.},
journal = {ESAIM: Proceedings},
keywords = {First cocycle equation; formal functional equations; iteration groups of type II; ring of formal power series over ℂ; first cocycle equation; ring of formal power series over },
language = {eng},
month = {8},
pages = {32-47},
publisher = {EDP Sciences},
title = {On the formal first cocycle equation for iteration groups of type II},
url = {http://eudml.org/doc/251289},
volume = {36},
year = {2012},
}

TY - JOUR
AU - Fripertinger, Harald
AU - Reich, Ludwig
AU - Fournier-Prunaret, D.
AU - Gardini, L.
AU - Reich, L.
TI - On the formal first cocycle equation for iteration groups of type II
JO - ESAIM: Proceedings
DA - 2012/8//
PB - EDP Sciences
VL - 36
SP - 32
EP - 47
AB - Let x be an indeterminate over ℂ. We investigate solutions \begin{eqnarray} \advance \displaywidth by -6pc \alpha(s,x)=\sum_{n\geq 0} \alpha_n(s)x^n,\nonumber \end{eqnarray}αn : ℂ → ℂ, n ≥ 0, of the first cocycle equation \begin{eqnarray} \advance \displaywidth by -6pc \alpha (s+t,x)= \alpha (s,x)\alpha \bigl(t,F (s,x)\bigr),\qquad s,t\in\Complex, \hspace*{5cm}{\rm(Co1)}\nonumber \end{eqnarray}in ℂ [[x]], the ring of formal power series over ℂ, where (F(s,x))s ∈ ℂ is an iteration group of type II, i.e. it is a solution of the translation equation \begin{eqnarray} \advance \displaywidth by -6pc F(s+t,x)=F(s,F(t,x)),\qquad s,t\in\Complex, \hspace*{5cm}\rm(T)\nonumber \end{eqnarray}of the form F(s,x) ≡ x + ck(s)xk mod xk+1, where k ≥ 2 and ck ≠ 0 is necessarily an additive function. It is easy to prove that the coefficient functions αn(s) of \begin{eqnarray} \advance \displaywidth by -6pc \alpha(s,x)=1+\sum_{n\geq 1}\alpha_n(s)x^n\nonumber \end{eqnarray}are polynomials in ck(s).It is possible to replace this additive function ck by an indeterminate. Finally, we obtain a formal version of the first cocycle equation in the ring (ℂ [y]) [[x]] . We solve this equation in a completely algebraic way, by deriving formal differential equations or an Aczél–Jabotinsky type equation. This way it is possible to get the structure of the coefficients in great detail which are now polynomials. We prove the universal character of these polynomials depending on certain parameters, the coefficients of the generator K of a formal cocycle for iteration groups of type II. Rewriting the solutions Γ(y,x) of the formal first cocycle equation in the form  ∑n ≥ 1ψn(x)yn as elements of (ℂ [[x]]) [[y]], we obtain explicit formulas for ψn in terms of the derivatives H(j)(x) and K(j)(x) of the generators H and K and also a representation of Γ(y,x) similar to a Lie–Gröbner series. There are interesting similarities between the solutions G(y,x) of the formal translation equation for iteration groups of type II and the solutions Γ(y,x) of the formal first cocycle equation for iteration groups of type II.
LA - eng
KW - First cocycle equation; formal functional equations; iteration groups of type II; ring of formal power series over ℂ; first cocycle equation; ring of formal power series over
UR - http://eudml.org/doc/251289
ER -

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