### Weakly mixing transformations and the Carathéodory definition of measurable sets

Let 𝕋 denote the set of complex numbers of modulus 1. Let v ∈ 𝕋, v not a root of unity, and let T: 𝕋 → 𝕋 be the transformation on 𝕋 given by T(z) = vz. It is known that the problem of calculating the outer measure of a T-invariant set leads to a condition which formally has a close resemblance to Carathéodory's definition of a measurable set. In ergodic theory terms, T is not weakly mixing. Now there is an example, due to Kakutani, of a transformation ψ̃ which is weakly mixing but not strongly...