For every element x** in the double dual of a separable Banach space X there exists the sequence $\left({x}^{\left(2n\right)}\right)$ of the canonical reproductions of x** in the even-order duals of X. In this paper we prove that every such sequence defines a spreading model for X. Using this result we characterize the elements of X**╲ X which belong to the class ${B}_{1}\left(X\right)\u2572{B}_{1/2}\left(X\right)$ (resp. to the class ${B}_{1/4}\left(X\right)$) as the elements with the sequence $\left({x}^{\left(2n\right)}\right)$ equivalent to the usual basis of ${\ell}^{1}$ (resp. as the elements with the sequence $({x}^{(4n-2)}-{x}^{\left(4n\right)})$ equivalent to the usual basis...

We introduce and study the spreading-(s) and the spreading-(u) property of a Banach space and their relations. A space has the spreading-(s) property if every normalized weakly null sequence has a subsequence with a spreading model equivalent to the usual basis of ${c}_{0}$; while it has the spreading-(u) property if every weak Cauchy and non-weakly convergent sequence has a convex block subsequence with a spreading model equivalent to the summing basis of ${c}_{0}$. The main results proved are the following: (a)...

We study the c₀-content of a seminormalized basic sequence (χₙ) in a Banach space, by the use of ordinal indices (taking values up to ω₁) that determine dichotomies at every ordinal stage, based on the Ramsey-type principle for every countable ordinal, obtained earlier by the author. We introduce two such indices, the c₀-index ${\xi}^{\left(\chi \u2099\right)}\u2080$ and the semibounded completeness index ${\xi}_{b}^{\left(\chi \u2099\right)}$, and we examine their relationship. The countable ordinal values that these indices can take are always of the form ${\omega}^{\zeta}$. These results...

Ramsey theory for words over a finite alphabet was unified in the work of Carlson, who also presented a method to extend the theory to words over an infinite alphabet, but subject to a fixed dominating principle. In the present work we establish an extension of Carlson's approach to countable ordinals and Schreier-type families developing an extended Ramsey theory for dominated words over a doubly infinite alphabet (in fact for ω-ℤ*-located words), and we apply this theory, exploiting the Budak-Işik-Pym...

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