### The neighborhood characteristic parameter for graphs.

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Unichord-free graphs are defined as having no cycle with a unique chord. They have appeared in several papers recently and are also characterized by minimal separators always inducing edgeless subgraphs (in contrast to characterizing chordal graphs by minimal separators always inducing complete subgraphs). A new characterization of unichord-free graphs corresponds to a suitable reformulation of the standard simplicial vertex characterization of chordal graphs.

Several authors have studied the graphs for which every edge is a chord of a cycle; among 2-connected graphs, one characterization is that the deletion of one vertex never creates a cut-edge. Two new results: among 3-connected graphs with minimum degree at least 4, every two adjacent edges are chords of a common cycle if and only if deleting two vertices never creates two adjacent cut-edges; among 4-connected graphs, every two edges are always chords of a common cycle.

Say that a cycle C almost contains a cycle C¯ if every edge except one of C¯ is an edge of C. Call a graph G strongly pancyclic if every nontriangular cycle C almost contains another cycle C¯ and every nonspanning cycle C is almost contained in another cycle C⁺. This is equivalent to requiring, in addition, that the sizes of C¯ and C⁺ differ by one from the size of C. Strongly pancyclic graphs are pancyclic and chordal, and their cycles enjoy certain interpolation and extrapolation properties with...

A graph is edge cycle extendable if every cycle C that is formed from edges and one chord of a larger cycle C⁺ is also formed from edges and one chord of a cycle C' of length one greater than C with V(C') ⊆ V(C⁺). Edge cycle extendable graphs are characterized by every block being either chordal (every nontriangular cycle has a chord) or chordless (no nontriangular cycle has a chord); equivalently, every chord of a cycle of length five or more has a noncrossing chord.

A graph is ptolemaic if and only if it is both chordal and distance-hereditary. Thus, a ptolemaic graph G has two kinds of intersection graph representations: one from being chordal, and the other from being distance-hereditary. The first of these, called a clique tree representation, is easily generated from the clique graph of G (the intersection graph of the maximal complete subgraphs of G). The second intersection graph representation can also be generated from the clique graph, as a very special...

An i-chord of a cycle or path is an edge whose endpoints are a distance i ≥ 2 apart along the cycle or path. Motivated by many standard graph classes being describable by the existence of chords, we investigate what happens when i-chords are required for specific values of i. Results include the following: A graph is strongly chordal if and only if, for i ∈ {4,6}, every cycle C with |V(C)| ≥ i has an (i/2)-chord. A graph is a threshold graph if and only if, for i ∈ {4,5}, every path P with |V(P)|...

Define a complete subgraph Q to be simplicial in a graph G when Q is contained in exactly one maximal complete subgraph ('maxclique') of G; otherwise, Q is nonsimplicial. Several graph classes-including strong p-Helly graphs and strongly chordal graphs-are shown to have pairs of peculiarly related new characterizations: (i) for every k ≤ 2, a certain property holds for the complete subgraphs that are in k or more maxcliques of G, and (ii) in every induced subgraph H of G, that same property...

Complete multipartite graphs range from complete graphs (with every partite set a singleton) to edgeless graphs (with a unique partite set). Requiring minimal separators to all induce one or the other of these extremes characterizes, respectively, the classical chordal graphs and the emergent unichord-free graphs. New theorems characterize several subclasses of the graphs whose minimal separators induce complete multipartite subgraphs, in particular the graphs that are 2-clique sums of complete,...

A graph is defined to be an atom if no minimal vertex separator induces a complete subgraph; thus, atoms are the graphs that are immune to clique separator decomposition. Atoms are characterized here in two ways: first using generalized vertex elimination schemes, and then as generalizations of 2-connected unichord-free graphs (the graphs in which every minimal vertex separator induces an edgeless subgraph).

Maxcliques (maximal complete subgraphs) and unit disks (closed neighborhoods of vertices) sometime play almost interchangeable roles in graph theory. For instance, interchanging them makes two existing characterizations of chordal graphs into two new characterizations. More intriguingly, these characterizations of chordal graphs can be naturally strengthened to new characterizations of strongly chordal graphs

The leafage l(G) of a chordal graph G is the minimum number of leaves of a tree in which G has an intersection representation by subtrees. We obtain upper and lower bounds on l(G) and compute it on special classes. The maximum of l(G) on n-vertex graphs is n - lg n - 1/2 lg lg n + O(1). The proper leafage l*(G) is the minimum number of leaves when no subtree may contain another; we obtain upper and lower bounds on l*(G). Leafage equals proper leafage on claw-free chordal graphs. We use asteroidal...

In 1986, Chartrand, Saba and Zou [3] defined a measure of the distance between (the isomorphism classes of) two graphs based on 'edge rotations'. Here, that measure and two related measures are explored. Various bounds, exact values for classes of graphs and relationships are proved, and the three measures are shown to be intimately linked to 'slowly-changing' parameters.

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