### A common abstraction of boolean rings and lattice ordered groups

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We introduce the so-called DN-algebra whose axiomatic system is a common axiomatization of directoids with an antitone involution and the so-called D-quasiring. It generalizes the concept of Newman algebras (introduced by H. Dobbertin) for a common axiomatization of Boolean algebras and Boolean rings.

∗ The present article was originally submitted for the second volume of Murcia Seminar on Functional Analysis (1989). Unfortunately it has been not possible to continue with Murcia Seminar publication anymore. For historical reasons the present vesion correspond with the original one.Weak completeness properties of Boolean rings are related to the property of being a Baire space (when suitably topologised) and to renorming properties of the Banach spaces of continuous functions on the corresponding...

We consider rings equipped with a closure operation defined in terms of a collection of commuting idempotents, generalising the idea of a topological closure operation defined on a ring of sets. We establish the basic properties of such rings, consider examples and construction methods, and then concentrate on rings which have a closure operation defined in terms of their lattice of central idempotents.

We investigate $\sqcap $-directoids which are bounded and equipped by a unary operation which is an antitone involution. Hence, a new operation $\bigsqcup $ can be introduced via De Morgan laws. Basic properties of these algebras are established. On every such an algebra a ring-like structure can be derived whose axioms are similar to that of a generalized boolean quasiring. We introduce a concept of symmetrical difference and prove its basic properties. Finally, we study conditions of direct decomposability of directoids...

The dichotomic physical quantities, also called propositions, can be naturally associated to maps of the set of states into the real interval [0,1]. We show that the structure of effect algebra associated to such maps can be represented by quasiring structures, which are a generalization of Boolean rings, in such a way that the ring operation of addition can be non-associative and the ring multiplication non-distributive with respect to addition. By some natural assumption on the effect algebra,...

The aim of the present paper is to study Hopfian and Co-Hopfian objects in categories like the category of rings, the module categories A-mod and mod-A for any ring A. Using Stone's representation theorem any Boolean ring can be regarded as the ring A of clopen subsets of compact Hausdorff totally disconnected space X. It turns out that the Boolean ring A will be Hopfian (resp. co-Hopfian) if and only if the space X is co-Hopfian (resp. Hopfian) in the category Top. For any compact Hausdorff space...

Semirings are modifications of unitary rings where the additive reduct does not form a group in general, but only a monoid. We characterize multiplicatively idempotent semirings and Boolean rings as semirings satisfying particular identities. Further, we work with varieties of enriched semirings. We show that the variety of enriched multiplicatively idempotent semirings differs from the join of the variety of enriched unitary Boolean rings and the variety of enriched bounded distributive lattices....