### A concrete analysis of the radical concept.

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The weak radical, W-Rad(A) of a non-associative algebra A, has been introduced by A. Rodríguez Palacios in [3] in order to generalize the Johnson's uniqueness of norm theorem to general complete normed non-associative algebras (see also [2] for another application of this notion). In [4], he showed that if A is a semiprime non-associative algebra with DCC on ideals, then W-Rad(A) = 0. In the first part of this paper we give an example of a non-semiprime associative algebra A with DCC on ideals and...

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 16N80, 16S70, 16D25, 13G05.We construct some new examples showing that Heyman and Roos construction of the essential closure in the class of associative rings can terminate at any finite or the first infinite ordinal.