### An ideal Waring problem with restricted summands

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We show that the Diophantine equation of the title has, for $n\>1$, no solution in coprime nonzero integers $x,y$ and $z$. Our proof relies upon Frey curves and related results on the modularity of Galois representations.

Using only elementary arguments, Cassels solved the Diophantine equation (x-1)³ + x³ + (x+1)³ = z² (with x, z ∈ ℤ). The generalization ${(x-1)}^{k}+{x}^{k}+{(x+1)}^{k}={z}^{n}$ (with x, z, n ∈ ℤ and n ≥ 2) was considered by Zhongfeng Zhang who solved it for k ∈ 2,3,4 using Frey-Hellegouarch curves and their corresponding Galois representations. In this paper, by employing some sophisticated refinements of this approach, we show that the only solutions for k = 5 have x = z = 0, and that there are no solutions for k = 6. The chief innovation...

We study coprime integer solutions to the equation a³ + b³ⁿ = c² using Galois representations and modular forms. This case represents perhaps the last natural family of generalized Fermat equations descended from spherical cases which is amenable to resolution using the so-called modular method. Our techniques involve an elaborate combination of ingredients, ranging from ℚ-curves and a delicate multi-Frey approach, to appeal to intricate image of inertia arguments.

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