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Mal'tsev--Neumann products of semi-simple classes of rings

Barry James Gardner (2022)

Commentationes Mathematicae Universitatis Carolinae

Malt’tsev–Neumann products of semi-simple classes of associative rings are studied and some conditions which ensure that such a product is again a semi-simple class are obtained. It is shown that both products, 𝒮 1 𝒮 2 and 𝒮 2 𝒮 1 of semi-simple classes 𝒮 1 and 𝒮 2 are semi-simple classes if and only if they are equal.

Minimal formations of universal algebras

Wenbin Guo, K.P. Shum (2001)

Discussiones Mathematicae - General Algebra and Applications

A class ℱ of universal algebras is called a formation if the following conditions are satisfied: 1) Any homomorphic image of A ∈ ℱ is in ℱ; 2) If α₁, α₂ are congruences on A and A / α i , i = 1,2, then A/(α₁∩α₂) ∈ ℱ. We prove that any formation generated by a simple algebra with permutable congruences is minimal, and hence any formation containing a simple algebra, with permutable congruences, contains a minimum subformation. This result gives a partial answer to an open problem of Shemetkov and Skiba...

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