### Equalities for orthogonal projectors and their operations

A complex square matrix A is called an orthogonal projector if A 2 = A = A*, where A* denotes the conjugate transpose of A. In this paper, we give a comprehensive investigation to matrix expressions consisting of orthogonal projectors and their properties through ranks of matrices. We first collect some well-known rank formulas for orthogonal projectors and their operations, and then establish various new rank formulas for matrix expressions composed by orthogonal projectors. As applications, we...