### A characterization of subgroup lattices of finite abelian groups.

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Over an artinian hereditary ring R, we discuss how the existence of almost split sequences starting at the indecomposable non-injective preprojective right R-modules is related to the existence of almost split sequences ending at the indecomposable non-projective preinjective left R-modules. This answers a question raised by Simson in [27] in connection with pure semisimple rings.

A ring A is called a chain ring if it is a local, both sided artinian, principal ideal ring. Let R be a commutative chain ring. Let A be a faithful R-algebra which is a chain ring such that Ā = A/J(A) is a separable field extension of R̅ = R/J(R). It follows from a recent result by Alkhamees and Singh that A has a commutative R-subalgebra R₀ which is a chain ring such that A = R₀ + J(A) and R₀ ∩ J(A) = J(R₀) = J(R)R₀. The structure of A in terms of a skew polynomial ring over R₀ is determined.

We give a comment to Theorem 1.1 published in our paper “Ring elements as sums of units” [Cent. Eur. J. Math., 2009, 7(3), 395–399].

Si considerano le estensioni chiuse $B$ di un $R$-modulo $A$ mediante un $R$-modulo $C$ nel caso in cui $R$ sia un anello semi-artiniano, cioè un anello $R$ con la proprietà che per ogni quoziente $(R{/}_{I})\ne 0$ sia soc $(R/I)\ne 0$. Tali estensioni sono caratterizzate dal fatto che $A$ deve essere un sottomodulo semi-puro di $B$.

Let M be a finitely generated module over an Artin algebra. By considering the lengths of the modules in the minimal projective resolution of M, we obtain the Betti sequence of M. This sequence must be bounded if M is eventually periodic, but the converse fails to hold in general. We give conditions under which it holds, using techniques from Hochschild cohomology. We also provide a result which under certain conditions guarantees the existence of periodic modules. Finally, we study the case when...

Let ${C}_{F}\left(X\right)$ be the socle of C(X). It is shown that each prime ideal in $C\left(X\right)/{C}_{F}\left(X\right)$ is essential. For each h ∈ C(X), we prove that every prime ideal (resp. z-ideal) of C(X)/(h) is essential if and only if the set Z(h) of zeros of h contains no isolated points (resp. int Z(h) = ∅). It is proved that $dim(C\left(X\right)/{C}_{F}\left(X\right))\ge dimC\left(X\right)$, where dim C(X) denotes the Goldie dimension of C(X), and the inequality may be strict. We also give an algebraic characterization of compact spaces with at most a countable number of nonisolated points. For each essential...