### A characterization of the arc by means of the C-index of itssemigroup.

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The clone of a topological space is known to have a strictly more expressive first-order language than that of the monoid of continuous self-maps. The current paper studies coclones of topological spaces (i.e. clones in the category dual to that of topological spaces and continuous maps) and proves that, in contrast to clones, the first-order properties of coclones cannot express anything more than those of the monoid, except for the case of discrete and indiscrete spaces.

The Polish space Y constructed in [vM1] admits no nontrivial isotopy. Yet, there exists a Polish group that acts transitively on Y.

Let G be a group which acts by homeomorphisms on a metric space X. We say the action of G is locally moving on X if for every open U ⊆ X there is a g ∈ G such that g↾X ≠ Id while g↾(X∖U) = Id. We prove the following theorem: Theorem A. Let X,Y be completely metrizable spaces and let G be a group which acts on X and Y with locally moving actions. If the orbits of the action of G on X are of the second category in X and the orbits of the action of G on Y are of the second category...

In this survey article we start from the famous Furstenberg theorem on non-lacunary semigroups of integers, and next we present its generalizations and some related results.