### A characterization of distributive lattices by tolerance lattices

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The concept of a deductive system has been intensively studied in algebraic logic, per se and in connection with various types of filters. In this paper we introduce an axiomatization which shows how several resembling theorems that had been separately proved for various algebras of logic can be given unique proofs within this axiomatic framework. We thus recapture theorems already known in the literature, as well as new ones. As a by-product we introduce the class of pre-BCK algebras.

We characterize ideals of ortholattices which are congruence kernels. We show that every congruence class determines a kernel.

Let V be a variety with two distinct nullary operations 0 and 1. An algebra 𝔄 ∈ V is called balanced if for each Φ,Ψ ∈ Con(𝔄), we have [0]Φ = [0]Ψ if and only if [1]Φ = [1]Ψ. The variety V is called balanced if every 𝔄 ∈ V is balanced. In this paper, balanced varieties are characterized by a Mal'cev condition (Theorem 3). Furthermore, some special results are given for varieties of bounded lattices.