### ${\aleph}_{1}$-directed inverse systems of continuous images of arcs.

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We show that a metric space X admits no sensitive commutative group action if it satisfies the following two conditions: (1) X has property S, that is, for each ε > 0 there exists a cover of X which consists of finitely many connected sets with diameter less than ε; (2) X contains a free n-network, that is, there exists a nonempty open set W in X having no isolated point and n ∈ ℕ such that, for any nonempty open set U ⊂ W, there is a nonempty connected open set V ⊂ U such that the boundary ${\partial}_{X}\left(V\right)$...

Converging sequences in metric space have Hausdorff dimension zero, but their metric dimension (limit capacity, entropy dimension, box-counting dimension, Hausdorff dimension, Kolmogorov dimension, Minkowski dimension, Bouligand dimension, respectively) can be positive. Dimensions of such sequences are calculated using a different approach for each type. In this paper, a rather simple formula for (lower, upper) metric dimension of any sequence given by a differentiable convex function, is derived....

A plane continuum is constructed which has span zero but is not chainable.

The main purpose of this paper is to prove some theorems concerning inverse systems and limits of continuous images of arcs. In particular, we shall prove that if X = {Xa, pab, A} is an inverse system of continuous images of arcs with monotone bonding mappings such that cf (card (A)) ≠ w1, then X = lim X is a continuous image of an arc if and only if each proper subsystem {Xa, pab, B} of X with cf(card (B)) = w1 has the limit which is a continuous image of an arc (Theorem 18).

A retractible non-locally connected dendroid is constructed.

We construct a universal planar completely regular continuum. This gives a positive answer to a problem posed by J. Krasinkiewicz (1986).

Continua that are approximative absolute neighborhood retracts (AANR’s) are characterized as absolute terminal retracts, i.e., retracts of continua in which they are embedded as terminal subcontinua. This implies that any AANR continuum has a dense arc component, and that any ANR continuum is an absolute terminal retract. It is proved that each absolute retract for any of the classes of: tree-like continua, $\lambda $-dendroids, dendroids, arc-like continua and arc-like $\lambda $-dendroids is an approximative absolute...

A concept of an absolute end point introduced and studied by Ira Rosenholtz for arc-like continua is extended in the paper to be applied arbitrary irreducible continua. Some interrelations are studied between end points, absolute end points and points at which a given irreducible continuum is smooth.

Such spaces in which a homeomorphic image of the whole space can be found in every open set are called self-homeomorphic. W.J. Charatonik and A. Dilks asked if any strongly self-homeomorphic dendrite is pointwise self-homeomorphic. We give a negative answer in Example 2.1.