### Cohomologie galoisienne : progrès et problèmes

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A “Galois theory” of differential equations was first proposed by Émile Picard in 1883. Picard, then a young mathematician in the course of making his name, sought an analogue to Galois’s theory of polynomial equations for linear differential equations with rational coefficients. His main results were limited by unnecessary hypotheses, as was shown in 1892 by his student Ernest Vessiot, who both improved Picard’s results and altered his approach, leading Picard to assert that his lay closest to...

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 12F12, 15A66.In this article we survey and examine the realizability of p-groups as Galois groups over arbitrary fields. In particular we consider various cohomological criteria that lead to necessary and sufficient conditions for the realizability of such a group as a Galois group, the embedding problem (i.e., realizability over a given subextension), descriptions of such extensions, automatic realizations among p-groups, and related topics.

The problem of the construction of number fields with Galois group over Q a given finite groups has made considerable progress in the recent years. The aim of this paper is to survey the current state of this problem, giving the most significant methods developed in connection with it.