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In the Lewis and Langford formalization of system S1 (1932), besides the deduction rules, the substitution rules are as well used: the uniform substitution and the substitution of strict equivalents. They then obtain systems S2, S3, S4 and S5 adding to the axioms of S1 a new axiom, respectively, without changing the deduction rules. Lemmon (1957) gives a new formalization of systems S1-S5, calling them P1-P5. Is is worthwhile to remark that in the formalization of P2-P5 one does not use any more...

In this paper we present a very general deduction theorem which -based upon a uniform notion of proof from hypotheses- holds for a very large class of logical systems. Most of the known results for classical and modal logics, as well as new results, are immediate corollaries of this theorem.

In this paper a semantical partition, relative to Kripke models, is introduced for sets of formulas. Secondly, this partition is used to generate a semantical hierarchy for modal formulas. In particular some results are given for the propositional calculi T and S4.

Incidence spatial geometry is based on three-sorted structures consisting of points, lines and planes together with three intersort binary relations between points and lines, lines and planes and points and planes. We introduce an equivalent one-sorted geometrical structure, called incidence spatial frame, which is suitable for modal considerations. We are going to prove completeness by SD-Theorem. Extensions to projective, affine and hyperbolic geometries are also considered.