### A census of vertices by generations in regular tessellations of the plane.

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We give a complete characterization of the locally compact groups that are non elementary Gromov-hyperbolic and amenable. They coincide with the class of mapping tori of discrete or continuous one-parameter groups of compacting automorphisms. We moreover give a description of all Gromov-hyperbolic locally compact groups with a cocompact amenable subgroup: modulo a compact normal subgroup, these turn out to be either rank one simple Lie groups, or automorphism groups of semiregular trees acting doubly...

An injective map from the vertex set of a graph G-its order may not be finite-to the set of all natural numbers is called an arithmetic (a geometric) labeling of G if the map from the edge set which assigns to each edge the sum (product) of the numbers assigned to its ends by the former map, is injective and the range of the latter map forms an arithmetic (a geometric) progression. A graph is called arithmetic (geometric) if it admits an arithmetic (a geometric) labeling. In this article, we show...

The infimum of the least eigenvalues of all finite induced subgraphs of an infinite graph is defined to be its least eigenvalue. In [P.J. Cameron, J.M. Goethals, J.J. Seidel and E.E. Shult, Line graphs, root systems, and elliptic geometry, J. Algebra 43 (1976) 305-327], the class of all finite graphs whose least eigenvalues ≥ −2 has been classified: (1) If a (finite) graph is connected and its least eigenvalue is at least −2, then either it is a generalized line graph or it is represented by the...

We use the concept of intrinsic metrics to give a new definition for an isoperimetric constant of a graph. We use this novel isoperimetric constant to prove a Cheeger-type estimate for the bottom of the spectrum which is nontrivial even if the vertex degrees are unbounded.

A graph G on a topological space X as its set of vertices is clopen if the edge relation of G is a clopen subset of X² without the diagonal. We study clopen graphs on Polish spaces in terms of their finite induced subgraphs and obtain information about their cochromatic numbers. In this context we investigate modular profinite graphs, a class of graphs obtained from finite graphs by taking inverse limits. This continues the investigation of continuous colorings on Polish spaces and their homogeneity...

In this paper, we study the existence of cycle double covers for infinite planar graphs. We show that every infinite locally finite bridgeless k-indivisible graph with a 2-basis admits a cycle double cover.

We define the magnetic Schrödinger operator on an infinite graph by the data of a magnetic field, some weights on vertices and some weights on edges. We discuss essential self-adjointness of this operator for graphs of bounded degree. The main result is a discrete version of a result of two authors of the present paper.

We prove that under appropriate assumptions adding or removing an infinite amount of edges to a given planar graph preserves its non-hyperbolicity, a result which is shown to be false in general. In particular, we make a conjecture that every tessellation graph of ℝ2 with convex tiles is non-hyperbolic; it is shown that in order to prove this conjecture it suffices to consider tessellation graphs of ℝ2 such that every tile is a triangle and a partial answer to this question is given. A weaker version...

In 1968 Erdős and Hajnal introduced shift graphs as graphs whose vertices are the k-element subsets of [n] = 1,...,n (or of an infinite cardinal κ ) and with two k-sets $A=a\u2081,...,{a}_{k}$ and $B=b\u2081,...,{b}_{k}$ joined if $a\u2081<a\u2082=b\u2081<a\u2083=b\u2082<\cdots <{a}_{k}={b}_{k-1}<{b}_{k}$. They determined the chromatic number of these graphs. In this paper we extend this definition and study the chromatic number of graphs defined similarly for other types of mutual position with respect to the underlying ordering. As a consequence of our result, we show the existence of a graph with interesting...

Let D be a digraph, V (D) and A(D) will denote the sets of vertices and arcs of D, respectively. A (k, l)-kernel N of D is a k-independent (if u, v ∈ N, u 6= v, then d(u, v), d(v, u) ≥ k) and l-absorbent (if u ∈ V (D) − N then there exists v ∈ N such that d(u, v) ≤ l) set of vertices. A k-kernel is a (k, k −1)-kernel. This work is a survey of results proving sufficient conditions for the existence of (k, l)-kernels in infinite digraphs. Despite all the previous work in this direction was done for...

In 1966, Cummins introduced the “tree graph”: the tree graph T(G) of a graph G (possibly infinite) has all its spanning trees as vertices, and distinct such trees correspond to adjacent vertices if they differ in just one edge, i.e., two spanning trees T1 and T2 are adjacent if T2 = T1 − e + f for some edges e ∈ T1 and f ∉ T1. The tree graph of a connected graph need not be connected. To obviate this difficulty we define the “forest graph”: let G be a labeled graph of order α, finite or infinite,...

The end compactification |Γ| of a locally finite graph Γis the union of the graph and its ends, endowed with a suitable topology. We show that π₁(|Γ|) embeds into a nonstandard free group with hyperfinitely many generators, i.e. an ultraproduct of finitely generated free groups, and that the embedding we construct factors through an embedding into an inverse limit of free groups. We also show how to recover the standard description of π₁(|Γ|) given by Diestel and Sprüssel (2011). Finally, we give...

A graph property is a set of (countable) graphs. A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph H is an edge-preserving map from the vertex set of G into the vertex set of H; if such a map exists, we write G → H. Given any graph H, the hom-property →H is the set of H-colourable graphs, i.e., the set of all graphs G satisfying G → H. A graph property P is of finite character if, whenever we have that F ∈ P for every finite induced subgraph F of a graph G, then we have that G ∈ P too. We explore some of...