### A formula for densities of transition functions

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We provide a generalization of Ueno's inequality for n-step transition probabilities of Markov chains in a general state space. Our result is relevant to the study of adaptive control problems and approximation problems in the theory of discrete-time Markov decision processes and stochastic games.

We recover the Navier–Stokes equation as the incompressible limit of a stochastic lattice gas in which particles are allowed to jump over a mesoscopic scale. The result holds in any dimension assuming the existence of a smooth solution of the Navier–Stokes equation in a fixed time interval. The proof does not use nongradient methods or the multi-scale analysis due to the long range jumps.

This paper deals with the relationship between two-dimensional parameter Gaussian random fields verifying a particular Markov property and the solutions of stochastic differential equations. In the non Gaussian case some diffusion conditions are introduced, obtaining a backward equation for the evolution of transition probability functions.

We consider integral representations of Feller probability kernels from a Tikhonov space X into a Hausdorff space Y by continuous functions from X into Y. From the existence of such a representation for every kernel it follows that the space X has to be 0-dimensional. Moreover, both types of representations coincide in the metrizable case when in addition X is compact and Y is complete. It is also proved that the representation of a single kernel is equivalent to the existence of some non-direct...

On a compact metric space X one defines a transition system to be a lower semicontinuous map $X\to {2}^{X}$. It is known that every Markov operator on C(X) induces a transition system on X and that commuting of Markov operators implies commuting of the induced transition systems. We show that even in finite spaces a pair of commuting transition systems may not be induced by commuting Markov operators. The existence of trajectories for a pair of transition systems or Markov operators is also investigated.

Motivated by applications to transition semigroups, we introduce the notion of a norming dual pair and study a Pettis-type integral on such pairs. In particular, we establish a sufficient condition for integrability. We also introduce and study a class of semigroups on such dual pairs which are an abstract version of transition semigroups. Using our results, we give conditions ensuring that a semigroup consisting of kernel operators has a Laplace transform which also consists of kernel operators....

We consider a semigroup acting on real-valued functions defined in a Hilbert space H, arising as a transition semigroup of a given stochastic process in H. We find sufficient conditions for analyticity of the semigroup in the ${L}^{2}\left(\mu \right)$ space, where μ is a gaussian measure in H, intrinsically related to the process. We show that the infinitesimal generator of the semigroup is associated with a bilinear closed coercive form in ${L}^{2}\left(\mu \right)$. A closability criterion for such forms is presented. Examples are also given....

We study the question of the law of large numbers and central limit theorem for an additive functional of a Markov processes taking values in a Polish space that has Feller property under the assumption that the process is asymptotically contractive in the Wasserstein metric.