### 1D dynamics of a second-grade viscous fluid in a constricted tube

Using a one-dimensional hierarchical model based on the Cosserat theory approach to fluid dynamics we can reduce the full 3D system of equations for the axisymmetric unsteady motion of a non-Newtonian incompressible second-grade viscous fluid to a system of equations depending on time and on a single spatial variable. From this new system we obtain the steady relationship between average pressure gradient and volume flow rate over a finite section of a straight constricted tube, and the corresponding...