### A backstepping approach to ship course control

As an object of course control, the ship is characterised by a nonlinear function describing static manoeuvring characteristics that reflect the steady-state relation between the rudder deflection and the rate of turn of the hull. One of the methods which can be used for designing a nonlinear ship course controller is the backstepping method. It is used here for designing two configurations of nonlinear controllers, which are then applied to ship course control. The parameters of the obtained nonlinear...